Earth and life ingredients – step 5

WHERE DOES EARTH AND LIFE INGREDIENTS COME FROM?

iIt is time for step 5 about the origins of earth and life ingredients. You will read about atoms and where they were created and are found today.

Willy Kinberg started his discussion about the creation of the world’s out of his last supernova and nebula observation in February 1901. He was on the correct track. I wrote about his theory in another post (click here to read about it.). We know today that Earth and all its ecosystem with its billion years evolution would have not have been occured without a massive star Supernova in this planet system neighborhood. So the stars Willy and the astronomer of his time saw had indeed to do with the “creation of the worlds” and the life on it.

Willy  talks about how the planets and organisms were formed in his book but I will come back to this later. I will in this post only talk about the origin of the atoms and were these are found.

Content

Earth most abundant atoms

The most abundant element in the earth’s crust is oxygen, making up 46.6% of the earth’s mass. Silicon is the second most abundant element (27.7%), followed by aluminum (8.1%), iron (5.0%), calcium (3.6%), sodium (2.8%), potassium (2.6%). and magnesium (2.1%). ”
Read more in  What Is the Most Abundant Element? – Most Abundant Element in the Universe, Earth, and Body” in www.thoughtco.com

The ingredience of life

Body and plants  needs  a lot of different kind of atoms to build Chlorophyll, DNA, enzyme, proteins, fat, etc. These atoms are created in different parts of the Universe. Scroll down to Nucelosynthesis  to read more about this.

Read more in “What are the Ingredients of Life?”

Enzyme atoms

The supernova enzymes. Selenoenzymes like selenocysteine and selenomethionine  contain Selen created during a Supernova nucleosynthesis.(Source: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/selenium )

Image result for selenocysteine

Selenocysteine
Image result for selenomethionineSelenomethionine

Some enzymes contain  Magnesium (Mg).
Read more in 
ods.od.nih.gov

Some enzymes need Zink (Zn), Read more in http://jn.nutrition.org/content/130/5/1437S.full

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DNA-atoms

DNA require  Carbon (C), Oxygen (O), Phosphor (P) 

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Clorophyll atoms

Chlorophyll in plants produce Oxygen molecules (O2) Chlorophyll needs Magnesium (Mg). REad more inwww.quora.comImage result for enzyme with magnesium

Some bacteria can live with Arsenic (As) instead of phosphorus (P) (Source: www.space.com   )

Nucleosynthesis

All the atoms are ordered in a Periodic system (Click on the image to get a full size view ).

If you want to get info about all the atoms go www.rsc.org and click on the atom you want to read about,
check eg “ Uses and properties -> Biological role”.

Periodic Table

Where and when are the atoms created?

Atoms have been built from the very start of Big Bang (Big bang nucleosynthesis). other heavier atoms, up to Iron are built in stars (stellar nucleosynthesis) and the heaviest in Supernova (Supernova nucleosynthesis) Look at this periodic table with info about the origins of the atoms.

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  • As you can understand shortly after (3 min-20 min after ) Big Bang (Big Bang nucleosynthesis) we got
    • hydrogen (H)
    • helium (He) atoms
  • In small stars as our  sun(stellar nucleosynthesis) we get  heavier atoms like
    • Nitrogen (N),
    • Oxygen (O),
    • neon (Ne) .
    • iron (Fe).
  • In large stars (stellar nucleosynthesis) we get:
    • Magnesium (Mg) needed in many enzymes
    • Zink (Zn) needed in many enzymes
    • Potassium (P) needed in DNA
  • Some atoms are created  in Supernovas (Supernova nucleosynthesis), that is  when superstars (8+ times the size of our sun) collapse:
    • brom (Br)
    • Gold (Au)m,
    • Selenium (Se found in selenoenzymes)
    • Silver (Ag),
    • Plutonium (Pt)

This image shows how atom nuclei collide forming bigger nuclei.

Latest supernova discoveries

Willy saw a “new star” in february 1901. We know today it was a supernova. We know also that there are two  types of supernovae.


Image source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=7&v=o-Y0clHDSqU

 Our sun is to small and will end up as a red giant and eventually teminate a a white dwarf. If there is  a companion star nearby ( maybe the Jupiter gas planet surviving the red giant phase and igniting?) a type 1a Supernova will appear.

A star that is a t least 8 time bigger than our sun terminates as a red supergiant and collapses creating a supernova type II.

As it was a recurrent observation, today we know Willy probably saw a type Ia supernova.

Supernova type II 3D simulation

We have news about type II supernova from Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics.

Supernova studies are complicated because of disturbing signals  in the Universe. The only way to come closer is making computer calculations/simulations with powerful computers based on observations and known physical mathematics. These calculations have been made at Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany and 2010 came the first results of a 3D modeling simulation.

They seem to have based their calculation out of detailed observations of SN 1987A a type II supernova in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud, our neighbouring galaxy, about 170,000 light years away. SN1987A was seen  about twenty years ago.

Aas you can see in the photos below, huge amounts of carbon (green), oxygen (red), and radioactive nickel (blue) were expelled from the studied collapsing star, a progenitor star 10+ times bigger than our sun. (We know that our star wont end up as a supernova but as a red giant. See more about this in the video below)

Death of a star in three dimensions

“Nickel bullets were observed to propagate at velocities of thousands of kilometres per second, much faster than the surrounding hydrogen and much faster than predicted by simple hydrodynamic calculations in one dimension (1D)” read more in https://phys.org/news/2010-05-death-star-3d.html

“n particular, a detailed model that reproduces all observational features of SN 1987A still remains a challenge.”

A more advanced lecture telling about the difference between type 1a supernova observed by Willy and a type  II supernova is well explained in this video with Yong-Zhong Qian.. To understand how stars are building up big atom nuclei with many neutrons with Helium nuclei protons, you should be familiar with neutrinos.

You will also learn more details about SN1987A with Yong in his video.

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Some good informative films in youtube

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Stellar nucleosynthesis

Stellar and Supernova  nucleosynthesis

Published in: on October 10, 2017 at 8:47 am  Leave a Comment  

Nebula and nova observations – step 4

Content

My grandfather Willy talkes in his book in page 10-14  about our planetary system, sun and planets and the stars that are seen  and how they move. Click here to read the German pages 10-14 )

Nebulae and spectroscopy

In page 14 he begins to explain about the difference between star groups and nebulae and how they are recognized with special cameras, spectroscopic cameras (Spectograph). Google
History_of_spectroscopy to learn more about this technique, eg in
web.mit.edu/spectroscopy/history/history-classical.html

You may find valuable info in History of Astronomy

 (Source : Wiki)

The Spectroscope or Spectrophotometer or Spectrometer or Spectrograph, vintage engraved illustration. Magasin Pittoresque 1874.Telescope with a prisma near the ocular.

Willys books Nebulae

Willy  mention among others these nebulae:

he tells in page 15 that he is convinced  that these nebulosa are intermediate phases in the building  of the worlds.

The camera Willys mention looked like this

 

Here are some modern images of Willys mentioned nebulae

 

Andromeda nebula now know as a Galaxy. 

messier 27,m27,planetary nebula

Dumbell nebula
(Messier 27) 1,200 light-years distance, “it was first described by the French astronomer and comet hunter Charles Messier who found it in 1764” (source: www.constellation-guide.com/dumbbell-nebula-messier-27/ )

The Crab Nebula in TaurusCrab nebula in Taurus.
“observed with the FORS2 instrument in imaging mode in the morning of November 10, 1999. It is the remnant of a supernova explosion at a distance of about 6,000 light-years, observed almost 1,000 years ago, in the year 1054. It contains a neutron star near its centre that spins 30 times per second around its axis (see below).” ( Source:www.eso.org/public/images/eso9948f/  )

Omega nebula (Messier 17)  in Sagittarius.
( Source: http://earthsky.org/clusters-nebulae-galaxies/m17-is-the-omega-nebula )

The Omega nebula contains Hydrogen, Helium etc  according to  spectral lines seen in Spectographs. Willy mentions existence of Helium and Hydrogen as existing in nebula. Source: http://pages.uoregon.edu/jimbrau/astr122-2015/Notes/Chapter4_5.html#spec  )

M57 The Ring Nebula.JPG

  • Spiral nebula as in the Canis constellation
    They may have seen the spiral glaxies NGC 2207 or  IC 2163 or messier 101.

    “Canis Major is home to Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, as well as to several notable deep sky objects: the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy, the open cluster Messier 41, the emission nebula NGC 2359 (also known as Thor’s Helmet), and the colliding spiral galaxies NGC 2207 and IC 2163.” (source:www.constellation-guide.com

canis major stars,canis major star map,sirius location,star chart

Canis major constellation

Ring nebula in Lyra. ( Source: Ring nebula M57 )

LyraLyra constellation

Messier objects in Sagittarius

(Sources:earthsky.org/clusters-nebulae-galaxies/m17-is-the-omega-nebula#science )

Appearing and dying stars.

Willy mentions several new star observations in page 15. I have found data about all his testimonials. Only his own observation in 2901 seems to have been exagerated maybe to fit into his theory of a world destruction. His book as he self told it is partly fiction and he deliberately left sources out to not annoy the reader with annoying facts.

Schmidt in Aten 1876 in the Cygnus 

“The star of 1876 (in the constellation of
Cygnus) had long been known and catalogued as a telescopic
star of the ninth magnitude, with nothing to distinguish it from
any of the common herd. On November 24th it suddenly shone
out as bright as the pole-star. Schmidt, of Athens, who discov-
ered it, had been observing that very region of the sky only four
days before, and no such object was then visible. The intervening
days were cloudy, so that we cannot tell precisely the hour when
it ?rst blazed up, but evidently its increase of brightness must
have been extremely rapid. Immediately after Schmidt’s obser-
vation it began to fade, but it was two weeks before it fell below
the sixth magnitude and became invisible to the naked eye, and
it was more than a year before it resumed its original faintness.
Its whole course was carefully watched with the spectroscope.
At ?rst, and for some months” (Source: babel.hathitrust.org/ )

Ward, Gully Hartwid 1885 in the Andromeda

He discovered a new star in M31 (the “Andromeda Nebula”) on 20 August 1885. This object was designated as supernova “S Andromedae“.  now called SN1885 (Source: www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Ernst%20Hartwig  )

SPACE PHOTOS THIS WEEK: Star Dunes, Comet Probe, MoreRemnants from SN 1885.
Photo of traces after the Supernova 1885
( Source: news.nationalgeographic.com  )

Dr Andersson in Edinburgh 1891 observation in the Auriga constellation in the Perseus 

“Nova T Aurigae 1891” as it is called today was discovered by “the watcher of the sky” Dr Andersson,  widely known far beyond the bounds of his native Scotland. Astronomers, professional and nonprofessional alike, and readers of popular and technical books on the science, knew of him as the discoverer of two famous temporary stars-Nova Aurigae (1892) and Nova Persei (1901)-and of many variable stars as well.” (Source:  http://www.astronomyedinburgh.org   )  It is a supernova in our Milky Way galaxy.

More about Nova T Aurigae in articles.adsabs.harvard.edu .

Auriga constellation: Source: http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Auriga_(constellation

Willy Kinberg 22/2 1901

As he describes the last observation in 1901, it sounds also like a supernova observation. probably it was “Nova Persei 1901”.

“We have imaged the ejecta of GK Persei (Nova Persei 1901 A.D.) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), revealing hundreds of cometary-like structures.”   read more in https://arxiv.org/abs/1204.3078 There are many observations done in 1901 (See http://www.rochesterastronomy.org/sn2009 /

Image result for nova persei 1901

“A “new star” appeared in the constellation Perseus in 1901? and was observed by Professor Winslow Upton at ?Brown’s ?Ladd Observatory. Eleven year-old H.P. Lovecraft also saw the cosmic sight, which inspired him to include the nova in his weird tales of horror.

Source https://blogs.brown.edu/libnews/nova-persei/

This is an image from 22/2 I took from rochesterastronomy:

(Source: https://blogs.brown.edu/libnews/nova-persei/

Willy tells about other observation in the Sky that sounds like Auroras, polar lights or northern lights. Could have looked like in this photo

Image result

In The Mysterius comet I found this text about

May it have been a comet or its tail entering the atmosphere the same day? To be looked closer at.

The destruction of two colliding worlds

Willy discuss this observation as testimonial of the destruction of two worlds who colliding with each other created the light.

Nova Persei 1901 inspired  also H.P. Lovecraft

in his  short cosmic horror story, “Beyond the Wall of Sleep”, were ancient, multi-dimensional entities menace humankind” click to read the book

Lovecraft (1890-1937) was an amateur astronomer Source:  https://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/parallax/serviss/lovecraft

Arise of spiral nebula

Messier 51 looked like this in a photo

Source: articles.adsabs.harvard.edu

My grandfather Willy continues in  his book in page 22-24  to talk about his theories about the creation of Spiral “nebula”. Click here to read the German pages 21-29 ) . His theory is that two giant bodys, maybe planets collided while rotating in opposite directions. See image from his book below. I think it is an interesting and well thought explanation.  At the time of Willy they called these observations as  nebula observations. A big debate started short after 1906 about the origing of these. Today scrietists agre that the spiral nebula actually is a spiral galaxies. Read more about the debate.

For you who are interested in nebula I recommend this youtube video

Willys sources

It is obvious that Willy being an engineer is highly interested in astronomican news and well informed about these. To me reminded that he made his researches at the end of the 1900th century when there was no internet. I wonder how he kept himself informed. Maybe he had a good network of friends devoted students of astronomy active in the Universities in Europe.

 

 

Published in: on September 29, 2017 at 5:16 pm  Leave a Comment  

Mars – step 3

 

mars_1908.Willy tells about Mars having big dams most probably built according to him by humans. The best binoculars at that time showed up lines on Mars because of light effects. The dams had to be enormous. Willy discussed deeply the necessity of these walls and how these walls could have been built. The story of Mars canals are discussed in www.popularmechanics.com 

The map Willy uses are very similar to Proctors maps of Mars. proctors

Read about Proctors images and  the development of telescopes in news.nationalgeographic.com

About the links on the right

I add links on the right side to articles with my view about the “Arise of the World and the Humanity” as seen with 20th century Sources and my Pluralistic and interreligious approach. I am sorry you can not comment on those articles as I am subject to attacks on my main site and can therefore not accept registering and logins there.  You are welcome to register and comment here in this site however.

Published in: on September 12, 2017 at 10:26 pm  Leave a Comment  
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Three questions – step 2

Three questions appear in the original book main page written in German:

de-title

  1. “How did the universe and humanity arise?”

  2. Did God create the World from nothing?

  3. Did the first humans, Adam and Eve have ancestors?

In the Swedish version there are no questions at all. Just the  title appears in page 1:

“The arise of the Universe and humanity”

I wonder why they omitted the questions in the Swedish book. The questions are not mentioned anymore in both versions as far  as I have read. I have only found the name of Adam and Eve in page 250 as you can see in the image below.

Willy is obviously trying to unite a Christian, Muslim, Hebraic creation view with a Scientific view making Adam and Eve belong to the Pithecanthropus hominids found 1891 in Java (17 years before the publication of the book in Freiburg) (Source: Oxford living dictionaries).

Adam and Eve

I digged deeper into this issue, looking with a pluralistic religious view at both the Christian and Muslim view of Adam and ended up with  a “Unified Creation Theory” that I link in the menu on the right column.

 

Published in: on September 10, 2017 at 1:13 am  Leave a Comment  

Introduction

“How was the world and human kind created?” is the title of a most ambitious book written by my grandfather Willy Kinberg about hundred years ago. It was published 1906 in German and later in Swedish in 1908. I have a Swedish and German translation dedicated by Willy to his parents.

Read about Willy Kinberg and his geneaology here.

Published in: on March 20, 2008 at 8:08 pm  Leave a Comment